5th International Instructional Technologies & Teacher Education Symposium Logo

External Validity of the TPACK-EFL Survey

Derya Başer

[email protected], Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi

Theodore J. Kopcha

[email protected], University of Georgia

M. Yaşar Ozden

[email protected], Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi

Tuğba Kamalı Arslantaş

[email protected], Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi

This study aimed to provide evidence of an external aspect of validity for the TPACK-EFL survey, a survey developed to assess the TPACK levels of teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). In particular, the paper focuses on the technology-related TPACK constructs of the TPACK-EFL survey. Baser et al. (2016) followed a rigorous path to develop the TPACK-EFL survey for a specific subject matter of EFL. Still, there were some issues related to technology-related TPACK constructs of the survey because of blurred boundaries among these constructs. This study is expected to improve the clarity of technology-related TPACK constructs as quantitative assessment of the constructs were reanalyzed from a qualitative perspective.

Using a triangulation design, technology-related TPACK mean scores were corroborated with qualitative results derived from semi-structured interviews. TPACK levels of the preservice EFL teachers were described through a holistic-content analysis of the interviews after determining their TPACK levels quantitatively through the TPACK-EFL survey. That is, data were collected through a different data collection method for the same constructs which provided external aspect of validity (Cavanagh & Koehler, 2013) for the TPACK-EFL survey. This will strengthen both the survey itself and the survey development process as the results of the study provided additional evidence for external validity of the TPACK-EFL survey.

The TPACK-EFL survey was administered to a sample group including 88 preservice EFL teachers. Completed surveys were analyzed through descriptive statistics in an attempt to portray preservice EFL teachers’ self-perceived TPACK levels. The preservice teachers’ mean scores for TK, TCK, TPK, and TPACK were considered as base-lines to consider the teachers’ mean scores as high or low. Then, these quantitative results were triangulated with qualitative results of the interviews conducted with those 12 preservice teachers. Interview data were examined through holistic content analysis with the purpose of determining the teachers’ levels for TK, TCK, TPK, and TPACK. The researchers looked for an alignment or a misalignment between the 12 teachers’ TPACK-EFL scores and interview results.

The results mostly indicated consistency between the qualitative and quantitative data for each technology-related TPACK construct of the TPACK-EFL survey. Holistic-content analysis of nine interviews were aligned with their descriptive survey results. However, holistic-content analysis results for three of the twelve cases did not support their survey results for the constructs of TCK and TPK. Details about the three misaligned cases are presented in the full paper.


Baser, D., Kopcha, T. J., & Ozden, M. Y. (2016): Developing a technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) assessment for preservice teachers learning to teach English as a foreign language, Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 749-764.

Cavanagh, R. F., & Koehler, M. J. (2013). A turn toward specifiying validity criteria in the measurement of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(2), 129-148.


Teacher education-preservice, Technology, Assessment