Efforts to integrate coding education into K-12 system has been increasing in recent years in many countries including Turkey. (Gal-Ezer & Zur, 2013; Kalelioğlu, 2015; Menekse, 2015; Tenenberg & McCartney, 2014; Yadav, Stephenson, & Hong, 2017). In the USA, there is ongoing efforts to increase participation in computing and integrate computer science education into K-12 classrooms among the educators (Menekse, 2015). In UK, computer science education became mandatory in the following five years’ period when it was almost extinct (Brown & Humphreys, 2013). In other countries, such as Austria, Germany, Mongolia, Netherlands (Schulte et al., 2012), Australia and Mexico (Yadav, Gretter, Hambrusch, & Sands, 2017), Flemish (Martens & Lemmens, 2014) computer science education is evolving. Many countries around the world trying to develop national CS curricula or updating existing ones; emphasizing computational thinking; trying to find out most effective pedagogical methods to make CS more attractive; discussion on new CS teacher preparation programs; trying to provide professional development to teachers and advocating for more and better CS education (Gal-Ezer & Stephenson, 2014). Namely, coding education around the world is in a positive progress.
In parallel to these growing interest, there are many evolving issues that needs to be addressed by the researchers (Ericson et al., 2008) such as CS teacher’s role and challenges they encountered. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the challenges of CS teachers encountered by investigating the limited studies in the literature. For this purpose, a systematic and comprehensive literatuer review was conducted. The review of literature includes a wide range of studies on coding education in order to provide valid and reliable information about the current status. Data were analyzed using content analysis method.
Results indicated that there are several content, pedagogical and assessment challenges (Yadav, Gretter, et al., 2017) as well as structural, financial and political challenges (Menekse, 2015). Although the situation of teachers in specific countries were investigated in current studies and CS teacher population varies among the countries, the challenges faced by the teachers around the world are almost the same. Lack of trained teachers, lack of teacher certification programs, current CS teachers’ identity problem, lack of training resources to keep up-to-date teachers, the desire to reviewed curriculum, unavailability of the latest hardware and software technologies at their schools are the major and mutual challenges of teacher around the world. These challenges needs to overcome immediately if the school system wants to provide their learners a qualified coding education. Potential suggestions to those challenges will be provided based on the literature.